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Gastroenterology. 2016 May;150(6):1380-92. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.011.

Gastroduodenal Disorders.

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Department of the Digestive System, University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy; Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:
Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Digestive System Research Unit, University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
University of Newcastle, New Lambton, Australia.


Symptoms that can be attributed to the gastroduodenal region represent one of the main subgroups among functional gastrointestinal disorders. A slightly modified classification into the following 4 categories is proposed: (1) functional dyspepsia, characterized by 1 or more of the following: postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning, which are unexplained after a routine clinical evaluation; and includes 2 subcategories: postprandial distress syndrome that is characterized by meal-induced dyspeptic symptoms and epigastric pain syndrome that does not occur exclusively postprandially; the 2 subgroups can overlap; (2) belching disorders, defined as audible escapes of air from the esophagus or the stomach, are classified into 2 subcategories, depending on the origin of the refluxed gas as detected by intraluminal impedance measurement belching: gastric and supragastric belch; (3) nausea and vomiting disorders, which include 3 subcategories: chronic nausea and vomiting syndrome; cyclic vomiting syndrome; and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome; and (4) rumination syndrome.


Belching; Dyspepsia; Nausea; Rumination; Vomiting

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