Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2016 Jul;29(7):622-39. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2016.03.003. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Abnormalities of the Mitral Apparatus in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Echocardiographic, Pathophysiologic, and Surgical Insights.

Author information

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a genetic disorder characterized by increased cardiac muscle mass. This disorder has broad phenotypic expression, including, among others, asymmetric septal hypertrophy, midcavity hypertrophy, and apical hypertrophy. In recent years, it has been recognized that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not characterized solely by ventricular hypertrophy but that a number of abnormalities of the mitral apparatus (papillary muscles, leaflets, chords, and annulus) may also occur. These figure prominently in the echocardiographic evaluation and surgical planning of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and serve as the focus of this review.


Anderson-Fabry disease; Athlete's heart; Cardiac amyloidosis; Echocardiography; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; Midventricular obstruction; Papillary muscle abnormalities; Systolic anterior motion

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center