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Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2016 May;111(5):311-21. doi: 10.1590/0074-02760150409. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti.

Author information

1
Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brasil.
2
Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.
3
Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília, DF, Brasil.
4
Laboratório de Fisiologia e Controle de Artrópodes Vetores, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
5
Laboratório de Entomologia, Secretaria de Saúde do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil.
6
Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, Brasil.
7
Secretaria de Saúde de São Paulo, Marília, SP, Brasil.

Abstract

The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites.

PMID:
27143489
PMCID:
PMC4878300
DOI:
10.1590/0074-02760150409
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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