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Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2016 Jan 27;6(1):49-55. doi: 10.1556/1886.2015.00050. eCollection 2016 Mar.

Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Menopause.

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Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico.
Institute for Scientific Research "Dr. Roberto Rivera Damm," Juárez University of Durango State . Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Durango, Mexico.
Facultad de Enfermería y Obstetricia, Juárez University of Durango State , Cuauhtémoc 223 norte, 34000 Durango, Mexico.
Health Center No. 2 "Dr. Carlos Santamaría", Servicios de Salud de Durango , Durango, Mexico, Talpa S/N, 34170 Durango, Mexico.
Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico; General Hospital, Secretary of Health, Avenida 5 de febrero 220, 34000 Durango, Mexico.
Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Medical School , Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.


Some symptoms of menopause have also been described in patients with toxoplasmosis. Whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has any influence on clinical manifestations of menopause is yet unknown. We sought to determine whether T. gondii exposure is associated with symptoms and signs of menopause. We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending a public health center in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were examined for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A questionnaire including 47 symptoms and signs potentially associated with menopause was applied. Association of seroprevalence for T. gondii with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Bivariate analysis showed that bouts of rapid heartbeat, breast pain, electric shock sensation, dizziness, digestive problems, low back pain, and migraine were associated with seropositivity to either IgG anti-T. gondii alone or both IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii. Breast pain was the only variable that was found to be associated with IgG seropositivity to T. gondii by multivariate analysis: (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.35-5.90; P = 0.005). Our results suggest that T. gondii exposure may influence on the clinical manifestations of menopause. Results deserve further research.


Toxoplasma gondii; cross-sectional study; menopause; perimenopause; seroprevalence

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