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Sci Rep. 2016 May 3;6:25339. doi: 10.1038/srep25339.

In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy.

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeoungbuk 37673, Rep. of Korea.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Rep. of Korea.
3
Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeoungbuk 37673, Rep. of Korea.

Abstract

Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. Intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence properties of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were characterized, and their distributions in mouse cornea in vivo were measured by 3D MPM imaging. Both moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin had similar multiphoton spectra, while moxifloxacin had stronger fluorescence than gatifloxacin. MPM imaging of mouse cornea in vivo showed (1) moxifloxacin had good penetration through the superficial corneal epithelium, while gatifloxacin had relatively poor penetration, (2) both ophthalmic solutions had high intracellular distribution. In vivo MPM results were consistent with previous studies. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MPM as a method for in vivo direct measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea.

PMID:
27138688
PMCID:
PMC4853790
DOI:
10.1038/srep25339
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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