Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Ann Biomed Eng. 2016 Sep;44(9):2642-60. doi: 10.1007/s10439-016-1628-0. Epub 2016 May 2.

Multi-scale Modeling of the Cardiovascular System: Disease Development, Progression, and Clinical Intervention.

Author information

  • 1Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
  • 3Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
  • 4Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
  • 5Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
  • 6Center for Computational Surgery, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA.
  • 7California Medical Innovations Institute, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • 8Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
  • 9Departments of Bioengineering and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • 10Departments of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
  • 11Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Computational Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in the western world. With the current development of clinical diagnostics to more accurately measure the extent and specifics of CVDs, a laudable goal is a better understanding of the structure-function relation in the cardiovascular system. Much of this fundamental understanding comes from the development and study of models that integrate biology, medicine, imaging, and biomechanics. Information from these models provides guidance for developing diagnostics, and implementation of these diagnostics to the clinical setting, in turn, provides data for refining the models. In this review, we introduce multi-scale and multi-physical models for understanding disease development, progression, and designing clinical interventions. We begin with multi-scale models of cardiac electrophysiology and mechanics for diagnosis, clinical decision support, personalized and precision medicine in cardiology with examples in arrhythmia and heart failure. We then introduce computational models of vasculature mechanics and associated mechanical forces for understanding vascular disease progression, designing clinical interventions, and elucidating mechanisms that underlie diverse vascular conditions. We conclude with a discussion of barriers that must be overcome to provide enhanced insights, predictions, and decisions in pre-clinical and clinical applications.


Cardiac mechanics; Cardiovascular fluid mechanics; Constitutive model; Electrophysiological modeling; Extracellular matrix; Mechanical forces; Multi-scale modeling; Pathway network analysis; Vascular mechanics

[Available on 2017-09-01]
[PubMed - in process]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer
    Loading ...
    Support Center