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Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2016 Jun;18(6):28. doi: 10.1007/s11940-016-0410-9.

Pathophysiology and Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension in Parkinsonian Disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School Center for Autonomic and Peripheral Disorders, 185 Pilgrim Road, Boston, MA, USA.
2
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School Center for Autonomic and Peripheral Disorders, 185 Pilgrim Road, Boston, MA, USA. cgibbons@bidmc.haravard.edu.

Abstract

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a sustained pathological reduction in blood pressure within 3 min after orthostatic stress such as tilt-table testing or active standing. Non-neurogenic OH is caused by either decreased cardiac output or impaired vasoconstriction without a primary autonomic disorder whereas neurogenic OH results from inadequate release of norepinephrine in the vasomotor sympathetic system. Once non-neurogenic causes of OH such as medications and cardiac problems are ruled out, neurogenic OH can be considered. Neurogenic OH can accompany parkinsonian diseases in different stages and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of neurogenic OH in parkinsonian diseases includes sympathetic neurocirculatory failure and impaired cardiovagal activity. The inadequate release of peripheral norepinephrine upon orthostatic stress is a final pathologic pathway for neurogenic OH and is important for many therapeutic interventions. With mild or early autonomic failure, OH that occurs beyond 3 min of standing (defined as delayed OH) can result in orthostatic intolerance. Supine hypertension and postprandial hypotension are frequent comorbidities and may exacerbate orthostatic hypotension. The non-pharmacologic therapies should be tried initially, followed by pharmacologic treatments. Common medications used in the treatment of OH include fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and droxidopa. Only midodrine and droxidopa have received FDA approval for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension.

KEYWORDS:

Autonomic failure; Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension; Parkinsonian disease; Supine hypertension

PMID:
27138287
DOI:
10.1007/s11940-016-0410-9

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