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Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jul;13(3):603-13. doi: 10.1007/s13311-016-0431-9.

Electroresponsive Nanoparticles Improve Antiseizure Effect of Phenytoin in Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
2
Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
3
Epilepsy Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
4
Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. chenzhong@zju.edu.cn.
5
Epilepsy Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. chenzhong@zju.edu.cn.
6
Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. chenzhong@zju.edu.cn.

Abstract

Previously, we developed electroresponsive hydrogel nanoparticles (ERHNPs) modified with angiopep-2 (ANG) to facilitate the delivery of the antiseizure drug phenytoin sodium (PHT). However, the electroresponsive characteristics were not verified directly in epileptic mice and the optimal preparation formula for electroresponsive ability is still unclear. Here, we further synthesized PHT-loaded ANG-ERHNPs (ANG-PHT-HNPs) and PHT-loaded nonelectroresponsive hydrogel nanoparticles (ANG-PHT-HNPs) by changing the content of sodium 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate in the preparation formulae. In vivo microdialysis analysis showed that ANG-PHT-ERHNPs not only have the characteristics of a higher distribution in the central nervous system, but also have electroresponsive ability, which resulted in a strong release of nonprotein-bound PHT during seizures. In both electrical- (maximal electrical shock) and chemical-induced (pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine) seizure models, ANG-PHT-ERHNPs lowered the effective therapeutic doses of PHT and demonstrated the improved antiseizure effects compared with ANG-PHT-HNPs or PHT solution. These results demonstrate that ANG-ERHNPs are able to transport PHT into the brain efficiently and release them when epileptiform activity occurred, which is due to the content of sodium 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate in formula. This may change the therapeutic paradigm of existing drug treatment for epilepsy into a type of on-demand control for epilepsy in the future.

KEYWORDS:

Electroresponsive; Epilepsy; Microdialysis; Nanoparticle; Sodium 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate

PMID:
27137202
PMCID:
PMC4965401
DOI:
10.1007/s13311-016-0431-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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