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Nature. 2016 Jun 9;534(7606):200-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17993. Epub 2016 May 2.

The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100044, China.
2
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
3
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
4
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo- and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
5
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany.
6
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
7
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
8
School of Archaeology and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
9
CIAS, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.
10
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, SA-5005 Adelaide, Australia.
11
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
12
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, 17 Novosibirsk, RU-630090, Russia.
13
Altai State University, Barnaul, RU-656049, Russia.
14
Dipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere, Università di Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
15
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
16
Direction régionale des affaires culturelles Rhône-Alpes, 69283 Lyon, Cedex 01, France.
17
Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Bari 'Aldo Moro', 70125 Bari, Italy.
18
Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain.
19
Department of Anthropology, MSC01 1040, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA.
20
Quaternary Archaeology, Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1010 Vienna, Austria.
21
Department of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria.
22
Department of Anthropology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
23
"Emil Racoviţă" Institute of Speleology, 010986 Bucharest 12, Romania.
24
"Emil Racoviţă" Institute of Speleology, Cluj Branch, 400006 Cluj, Romania.
25
Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, 48121 Ravenna, Italy.
26
Sezione di Scienze Preistoriche e Antropologiche, Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.
27
Università degli Studi di Bari 'Aldo Moro', 70125 Bari, Italy.
28
Museo di "Civiltà preclassiche della Murgia meridionale", 72017 Ostuni, Italy.
29
Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy.
30
Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell'Ambiente, U.R. Preistoria e Antropologia, Università degli Studi di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.
31
CNRS/UMR 7041 ArScAn MAE, 92023 Nanterre, France.
32
INRAP/UMR 8215 Trajectoires 21, 92023 Nanterre, France.
33
Ulmer Museum, 89073 Ulm, Germany.
34
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, Department of Geology, 01041 Bucharest, Romania.
35
Department of Anthropology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California 91330-8244, USA.
36
Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR 5199-PACEA, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France.
37
TRACES - UMR 5608, Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès, Maison de la Recherche, 31058 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
38
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
39
Department of Archaeology, School of Culture and Society, Aarhus University, 8270 Højbjerg, Denmark.
40
Service Régional d'Archéologie de Franche-Comté, 25043 Besançon Cedex, France.
41
Laboratoire Chronoenvironnement, UMR 6249 du CNRS, UFR des Sciences et Techniques, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France.
42
Department of Geosciences, Biogeology, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany.
43
Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72072 Tübingen, Germany.
44
Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
45
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Paleoanthropology, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
46
Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Saint Petersburg 34, Russia.
47
Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.
48
Institute of Archaeology at Brno, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, 69129 Dolní Vĕstonice, Czech Republic.
49
Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada.

Abstract

Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

PMID:
27135931
PMCID:
PMC4943878
DOI:
10.1038/nature17993
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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