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Andrologia. 2017 Mar;49(2). doi: 10.1111/and.12611. Epub 2016 May 2.

Education in sexual medicine - a nationwide study among German urologists/andrologists and urology residents.

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Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
Andrologicum, Munich, Germany.
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
Praxis für Sexualmedizin, Kiel, Germany.


Although sexual-related problems are very prevalent, inadequate training for physicians has been reported. The aim was to investigate the educational situation in sexual medicine, including sexual dysfunctions, gender dysphoria and paraphilia, among German physicians in urology and andrology. Additional, barriers when addressing sexual health issues and confidence in taking care of patients with sexual-related problems were evaluated. A questionnaire was sent to 5955 urologists, urology residents and andrologists throughout Germany. The results of this study emphasise the need for continuing education and training in sexual medicine including sexual dysfunctions (83.9%), gender dysphoria (58.2%) and paraphilia (56.6%). Physicians, especially when working in urology, need basic skills in order to feel confident (89.0% in taking care of patients with sexual dysfunctions, 25.8% with gender dysphoria and 22.9% with paraphilia) and be able to reduce several barriers when addressing sexual health issues. The main reported barriers were lack of time (61.0%), inadequate financial compensation (42.5%), lack of necessity (29.9%) and the assumption of patients feeling uncomfortable (20.9%). It is within the competence of urologists and andrologists to correctly assess the situation and to refer patients to multidisciplinary support, such as psychologists, psychosomatics or couple therapists.


Gender dysphoria; paraphilia; sexual dysfunctions; sexual medicine; sexuality education

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