Send to

Choose Destination
Microsc Microanal. 2016 Jun;22(3):507-14. doi: 10.1017/S1431927616000659. Epub 2016 May 3.

Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Author information

1Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry,University of California San Diego,La Jolla,CA 92093,USA.
2SCIENION AG,Volmerstr. 7a,12489 Berlin,Germany.
3Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,3335 Innovation Blvd.,Richland,WA 99354,USA.


Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.


TEM sample preparation; dispensing organic non-organic solutions; grid loading; liquid cell transmission electron microscopy

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Cambridge University Press Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center