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Prog Neurobiol. 2016 Sep;144:88-102. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2016.04.009. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

The pathophysiological role of astrocytic endothelin-1.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussel, Belgium.
2
Department of Neurology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussel, Belgium; National Multiple Sclerosis Center, Melsbroek, Belgium.
3
Department of Pharmacology, Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussel, Belgium.
4
Department of Neurology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussel, Belgium; Department of Neurology, Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Jacques.Dekeyser@uzbrussel.be.

Abstract

In the normal central nervous system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is found in some types of neurons, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and endothelial cells of microvessels, but it is usually not detectable in glial cells. However, in different pathological conditions, astrocytes adapting a reactive phenotype express high levels of ET-1 and its receptors, mainly the ETB receptor. ET-1 released by reactive astrocytes appears mainly to have neurodeleterious effects by mechanisms that include constriction of cerebral arterioles leading to impairment of the cerebral microcirculation, increase of blood brain barrier permeability, inflammation, excitotoxicity, impairment of fast axonal transport, and astrogliosis. A few studies in rodents found that ET-1 increased the astrocytic expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and neurotropin-3, and the production of endocannabinoids. However, whether this occurs in physiological or pathological conditions is unclear. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of the astrocytic ET-1 system in acute and chronic neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, Alzheimer's disease, Binswanger's disease and post-stroke dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and CNS infections. Counteracting the harmful effects of astrocytic ET-1 may represent a promising therapeutic target for mitigating secondary brain damage in a variety of neurological diseases. We also briefly address the role of astrocytic ET-1 in astrocytic tumors and pain.

KEYWORDS:

Astrocytes; Astrocytoma; Astrogliosis; Blood Brain barrier; Cerebral blood flow; Endothelin-1; Neurological disorders; Pain

PMID:
27132521
DOI:
10.1016/j.pneurobio.2016.04.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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