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Environ Int. 2016 Jul-Aug;92-93:373-87. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.002. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Occurrence, fate and ecological risk of chlorinated paraffins in Asia: A review.

Author information

1
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China.
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.
3
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China; Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510075, China. Electronic address: lidq@gzb.ac.cn.
4
CEPREI Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Center, The 5th Electronics Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Guangzhou 510610, China.

Abstract

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), complex mixtures of polychlorinated alkanes, are widely used in various industries and are thus ubiquitous in the receiving environment. The present study comprehensively reviewed the occurrence, fate and ecological risk of CPs in various environmental matrices in Asia. Releases from the production and consumption of CPs or CP-containing materials, wastewater discharge and irrigation, sewage sludge application, long-range atmospheric transport and aerial deposition have been found to be most likely sources and transport mechanisms for the dispersion of CPs in various environmental matrices, such as air, water, sediment, soil and biota. CPs can be bioaccumulated in biota and biomagnified through food webs, likely causing toxic ecological effects in organisms and posing health risks to humans. Inhalation, dust ingestion and dietary intake are strongly suggested as the major routes of human exposure. Research gaps are discussed to highlight the perspectives of future research to improve future efforts regarding the analysis of CPs, the environmental occurrence and elimination of CPs, the total environmental pressure, and the risks to organisms and populations.

KEYWORDS:

Chlorinated paraffins; Fate; Human exposure; Long-range atmospheric transport; Occurrence; Toxicity

PMID:
27132163
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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