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Environ Int. 2016 Jul-Aug;92-93:357-65. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.004. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Variability of perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in pregnant women by socio-demographic and dietary factors in a Spanish birth cohort.

Author information

1
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: cmanzano@creal.cat.
2
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
3
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; FISABIO Universitat de València-Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit, Valencia, Spain.
4
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Subdirección de Salud Pública y Adicciones de Gipuzkoa, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria BIODONOSTIA, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.
5
Institute for Occupational Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
6
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Universidad Miguel Hernandez, San Juan de Alicante, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; but maternal determinants of PFAS exposure are unclear. We evaluated the socio-demographic and dietary factors of prenatal PFAS concentrations in a Spanish birth cohort.

METHODS:

We analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 1216 plasma samples collected during the 1(ST) trimester of pregnancy (2003-2008). We used multivariable linear regressions to assess the geometric mean (GM) ratios of PFAS concentrations by socio-demographic and dietary factors. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the variability of PFAS concentrations by maternal factors.

RESULTS:

GM PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.55ng/mL for PFHxS to 5.77ng/mL for PFOS. Women born outside of Spain had lower PFAS concentrations (e.g. GM ratio for PFHxS 0.53[95%CI: 0.46, 0.60] than Spanish women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were higher in mothers from the regions of Sabadell (2.13[1.93, 2.35] and 1.73[1.60, 1.88], respectively) and Valencia (1.40[1.28, 1.54] and 1.42[1.31, 1.53], respectively) than Gipuzkoa. PFOA and PFNA concentrations decreased with parity (≥2 children: 0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.68, 0.99], respectively). Younger women (i.e. <25years) had lower PFHxS (0.73[0.62, 0.86]) and PFOS (0.85[0.75, 0.96]) concentrations than older women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were lower in women who previously breastfed for >6months compared to those who never breastfed (0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.71, 0.95], respectively). High intake of fish and shellfish during pregnancy (i.e. ≥5.6 servings/week) was associated with 11% (1.11[1.04, 1.18]) higher PFOS concentrations than the lowest intake group. Our ANOVA models explained 26% to 40% of PFAS concentrations variability.

CONCLUSIONS:

Prenatal PFAS concentrations were mainly determined by maternal country of birth, region of residence, previous breastfeeding and age. Fish and shellfish intake also contributed to PFOS and PFOA concentrations.

KEYWORDS:

Birth cohort; Maternal-fetal exposure; Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS); Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA); Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS); Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); Spain

PMID:
27132161
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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