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Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Oct;57:47-52. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.03.018. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Circulating progenitor cells are positively associated with cognitive function among overweight/obese children.

Author information

1
Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States.
2
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Canada.
3
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States.
4
Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States; Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States.
5
Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States. Electronic address: mdelisio@illinois.edu.

Abstract

Recent evidence has indicated that overweight/obese children may experience cognitive and immune dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association between overweight/obesity, immune dysfunction, and cognition have yet to be established. The present study aimed to identify a novel link between obesity-induced immune system dysregulation and cognition in preadolescent children. A total of 27 male children (age: 8-10years) were recruited and separated by body mass index (BMI) into healthy weight (HW: 5th-84.9th percentile, n=16) and overweight/obese (OW: ⩾85th percentile, n=11) groups. Adiposity was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and aspects of executive function were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Monocyte populations (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+)) with and without expression of chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs: CD34(+)CD45(dim)), in peripheral blood were quantified by flow cytometry. CPCs were isolated by flow sorting and cultured for 24h for collection of conditioned media (CM) that was applied to SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas to examine the paracrine effects of CPCs on neurogenesis. OW had significantly higher quantities of both populations of monocytes (CD14(+)CD16(-): 57% increase; CD14(+)CD16(+): 95% increase, both p<0.01), monocytes expressing CCR2 (CD14(+)CD16(-)CCR2(+): 66% increase; CD14(+)CD16(+)CCR2(+): 168% increase, both p<0.01), and CPCs (47% increase, p<0.05) than HW. CPCs were positively correlated with abdominal adiposity in OW, and negatively correlated in HW with a significant difference between correlations (p<0.05). CPC content was positively correlated with executive processes in OW, and negatively correlated in HW with a significant difference in the strength of the correlations between groups (p<0.05 for correlation between OW and HW). Finally, CPC-CM from OW trended to increase neuroblast viability in vitro relative to HW (1.79 fold, p=0.07). These novel findings indicate that increased content of CPCs among OW children may play a role in preventing decrements in cognitive function via paracrine mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Executive function; Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells; Inflammation; Neurogenesis; Paracrine factor

PMID:
27132057
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbi.2016.03.018
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