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Food Chem Toxicol. 2016 Jul;93:73-81. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.04.022. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Estimated exposure to EU regulated mycotoxins and risk characterization of aflatoxin-induced hepatic toxicity through the consumption of the toasted cereal flour called "gofio", a traditional food of the Canary Islands (Spain).

Author information

1
Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Electronic address: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es.
2
Department of Environmental Analysis, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, C/ Los Cactus no 68 35118, Polígono Industrial de Arinaga, Agüimes, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain.
3
Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
4
Department of Environmental Analysis, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, C/ Los Cactus no 68 35118, Polígono Industrial de Arinaga, Agüimes, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain. Electronic address: rdiaz@itccanarias.org.

Abstract

"Gofio" is a type of flour made from toasted grain, which is part of the staple food in the Canary Islands, Spain, in which the occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) Ochratoxin A (OTA), Deoxynivalenol (DNV) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated. 83% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 69.2% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins (range 2 to 8). All the concentrations were well below the established limits (maximum values of AFs=0.42 μg/kg; FBs=178.3 μg/kg; OTA=0.3 μg/kg; DON=92.5 μg/kg; and ZEA=9.9 μg/kg). The daily dietary exposure to total AFs was estimated to be 7.1% of the TDI. This value was almost double in children, and considering the upper-bound approach could reach 35% of the TDI. For the rest of mycotoxins, the consumers would be exposed to less than 2% of their TDIs. The risk characterization indicates that there is a potential risk in developing aflatoxin induced liver cancer due to gofio consumption in the subpopulation which is simultaneously exposed to other hepatocarcinogens, such as the hepatitis B virus.

KEYWORDS:

Estimated dietary intake (EDI); Gofio; Liver cancer; Mycotoxins; Risk characterization; Tolerable daily intake (TDI)

PMID:
27132021
DOI:
10.1016/j.fct.2016.04.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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