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Brain Res. 2016 Jul 15;1643:140-51. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.04.063. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Salubrinal reduces oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and impulsive-like behavior in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, One Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States; Centers for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States. Electronic address: alogsdo1@mix.wvu.edu.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States; Centers for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States. Electronic address: bwold@mix.wvu.edu.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, One Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV, United States. Electronic address: lnguyen1@mix.wvu.edu.
4
Dean's Office, College of Pharmacy, Touro University California, Vallejo, CA, United States. Electronic address: rae.matsumoto@tu.edu.
5
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States; Centers for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States. Electronic address: rcturner@hsc.wvu.edu.
6
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States; Centers for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States. Electronic address: crosen@hsc.wvu.edu.
7
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, One Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States; Centers for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States. Electronic address: jdhuber@hsc.wvu.edu.

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of trauma related morbidity in the developed world. TBI has been shown to trigger secondary injury cascades including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. The link between secondary injury cascades and behavioral outcome following TBI is poorly understood warranting further investigation. Using our validated rodent blast TBI model, we examined the interaction of secondary injury cascades following single injury and how these interactions may contribute to impulsive-like behavior after a clinically relevant repetitive TBI paradigm. We targeted these secondary pathways acutely following single injury with the cellular stress modulator, salubrinal (SAL). We examined the neuroprotective effects of SAL administration on significantly reducing ER stress: janus-N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), oxidative stress: superoxide and carbonyls, and neuroinflammation: nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, and pro-inflammatory cytokines at 24h post-TBI. We then used the more clinically relevant repeat injury paradigm and observed elevated NFκB and iNOS activity. These injury cascades were associated with impulsive-like behavior measured on the elevated plus maze. SAL administration attenuated secondary iNOS activity at 72h following repetitive TBI, and most importantly prevented impulsive-like behavior. Overall, these results suggest a link between secondary injury cascades and impulsive-like behavior that can be modulated by SAL administration.

KEYWORDS:

Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Impulsive-like behavior; Neuroinflammation; Oxidative stress; Traumatic brain injury

PMID:
27131989
PMCID:
PMC5578618
DOI:
10.1016/j.brainres.2016.04.063
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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