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Cereb Cortex. 2016 Jul;26(7):3297-309. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhw098. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Relationship Between Cortical Gyrification, White Matter Connectivity, and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Author information

1
Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, and the Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College, London SE5 8AF, UK Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Goethe University, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
2
Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, and the Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College, London SE5 8AF, UK.
3
Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK.
4
Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK Child and Youth Mental Health Collaborative at the Centre or Addiction and Mental Health and The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4, Canada Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan 100, R.O.C.
5
Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK Department of Psychology and Center for Applied Neuroscience, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus.
6
Brain Mapping Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK.
7
Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College, London SE5 8AF, UK.
8
Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 5HQ, UK.
9
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Goethe University, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, which is accompanied by differences in gray matter neuroanatomy and white matter connectivity. However, it is unknown whether these differences are linked or reflect independent aetiologies. Using a multimodal neuroimaging approach, we therefore examined 51 male adults with ASD and 48 neurotypical controls to investigate the relationship between gray matter local gyrification (lGI) and white matter diffusivity in associated fiber tracts. First, ASD individuals had a significant increase in gyrification around the left pre- and post-central gyrus. Second, white matter fiber tracts originating and/or terminating in the cluster of increased lGI had a significant increase in axial diffusivity. This increase in diffusivity was predominantly observed in tracts in close proximity to the cortical sheet. Last, we demonstrate that the increase in lGI was significantly correlated with increased diffusivity of short tracts. This relationship was not significantly modulated by a main effect of group (i.e., ASD), which was more closely associated with gray matter gyrification than white matter diffusivity. Our findings suggest that differences in gray matter neuroanatomy and white matter connectivity are closely linked, and may reflect common rather than distinct aetiological pathways.

KEYWORDS:

Autism spectrum disorder; brain anatomy; brain connectivity; brain development; multimodal neuroimaging

PMID:
27130663
PMCID:
PMC4898679
DOI:
10.1093/cercor/bhw098
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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