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Int J Food Microbiol. 2016 Aug 2;230:58-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.04.020. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Effect of environmental factors on Fusarium population and associated trichothecenes in wheat grain grown in Jiangsu province, China.

Author information

1
Institute of Food Quality and Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Lab of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province-State Key Laboratory Breeding Base/Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro-Product Quality and Safety, Ministry of Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Safety Risk Evaluation, Ministry of Agriculture/Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety, Nanjing 210014, China.
2
Institute of Food Quality and Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Lab of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province-State Key Laboratory Breeding Base/Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro-Product Quality and Safety, Ministry of Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Safety Risk Evaluation, Ministry of Agriculture/Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety, Nanjing 210014, China. Electronic address: xujianhongnj@126.com.
3
College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.
4
Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing 210014, China.
5
Institute of Food Quality and Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Lab of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province-State Key Laboratory Breeding Base/Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro-Product Quality and Safety, Ministry of Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Safety Risk Evaluation, Ministry of Agriculture/Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety, Nanjing 210014, China. Electronic address: jianrong63@126.com.

Abstract

The present study was performed to identify prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with major mycotoxins in Jiangsu province. The precipitation levels were 184.2mm, 156.4mm, and 245.8mm in the years 2013-2015, respectively, and the temperature fluctuated by an average of 10.6±7.2°C in 2013, 10.9±7.2°C in 2014, and 10.6±6.3°C in 2015. Co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON) were observed in wheat. The average concentrations of DON were 879.3±1127.8, 627.8±640.5, and 1628.6±2,168.0μg/kg in 2013-2015, respectively. The average concentrations of 3ADON were 43.5±59.0, 71.2±102.5, and 33.5±111.9μg/kg in 2013-2015, respectively. We found that the average concentration of DON in wheat was positively correlated with precipitation (r=0.998, p<0.01), and 3ADON was negatively correlated with precipitation (r=-0.887, p<0.05). However, there was no correlation between precipitation and 15ADON or nivalenol (NIV). The differences in temperature were not as significant as the differences in rainfall amount over a short time period. Therefore, there were no correlations between temperature and the concentrations of trichothecenes, excluding 3ADON (r=0.996, p<0.01). Our data indicated that Fusarium asiaticum is the primary pathogenic fungus prevalent in the Fusarium head blight disease nursery. The trichothecene chemotype composition differed between Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) and F. asiaticum isolates. The 3ADON chemotype was found only among strains of F. asiaticum. The NIV chemotype was not observed among strains of F. graminearum, while the 15ADON chemotype represented 100% of the F. graminearum strains collected. The results of this study indicated no correlations between environmental conditions and the species or genetic chemotype composition of pathogens in Jiangsu province in 2013-2015.

KEYWORDS:

Environmental; Fusarium; Trichothecenes; Wheat

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