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F1000Res. 2016 Apr 7;5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-599. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7134.1. eCollection 2016.

Advances in understanding - genetic basis of intellectual disability.

Author information

1
Institute of Genomic Medicine, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.
2
Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Abstract

Intellectual disability is the most common developmental disorder characterized by a congenital limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. It often co-occurs with other mental conditions like attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, and can be part of a malformation syndrome that affects other organs. Considering the heterogeneity of its causes (environmental and genetic), its frequency worldwide varies greatly. This review focuses on known genes underlying (syndromic and non-syndromic) intellectual disability, it provides a succinct analysis of their Gene Ontology, and it suggests the use of transcriptional profiling for the prioritization of candidate genes.

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