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Lancet HIV. 2016 May;3(5):e221-30. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)00037-0. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Botswana's progress toward achieving the 2020 UNAIDS 90-90-90 antiretroviral therapy and virological suppression goals: a population-based survey.

Author information

1
Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.
2
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health AIDS Initiative, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health AIDS Initiative, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
4
Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health AIDS Initiative, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
6
Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health AIDS Initiative, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
7
Bennett Statistical Consulting, Inc, Ballston Lake, NY, USA.
8
Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health AIDS Initiative, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
9
Ministry of Health, Republic of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.
10
Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.
11
Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
12
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
13
Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health AIDS Initiative, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: messex@hsph.harvard.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

HIV programmes face challenges achieving high rates of HIV testing and treatment needed to optimise health and to reduce transmission. We used data from the Botswana Combination Prevention Project study survey to assess Botswana's progress toward achieving UNAIDS targets for 2020: 90% of all people living with HIV knowing their status, 90% of these receiving sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of those having virological suppression (90-90-90).

METHODS:

A population-based sample of individuals was recruited and interviewed in 30 rural and periurban communities from Oct 30, 2013, to Nov 24, 2015, as part of a large, ongoing community-randomised trial designed to assess the effect of a combination prevention package on HIV incidence. A random sample of about 20% of households in each community was selected. Consenting household residents aged 16-64 years who were Botswana citizens or spouses of citizens responded to a questionnaire and had blood drawn for HIV testing in the absence of documentation of positive HIV status. Viral load testing was done in all HIV-infected participants, irrespective of treatment status. We used modified Poisson generalised estimating equations to obtain prevalence ratios, corresponding Huber robust SEs, and 95% Wald CIs to examine associations between individual sociodemographic factors and a binary outcome indicating achievement of the three individual and combined overall 90-90-90 targets. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01965470.

FINDINGS:

81% of enumerated eligible household members took part in the survey (10% refused and 9% were absent). Among 12 610 participants surveyed, 3596 (29%) were infected with HIV, and 2995 (83·3%, 95% CI 81·4-85·2) of these individuals already knew their HIV status. Among those who knew their HIV status, 2617 (87·4%, 95% CI 85·8-89·0) were receiving ART (95% of those eligible by national guidelines, and 73% of all infected people). Of the 2609 individuals receiving ART with a viral load measurement, 2517 (96·5%, 95% CI 96·0-97·0) had viral load of 400 copies per mL or less. Overall, 70·2% (95% CI 67·5-73·0) of HIV-infected people had virological suppression, close to the UNAIDS target of 73%.

INTERPRETATION:

UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets are achievable even in resource-constrained settings with high HIV burden.

FUNDING:

US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

PMID:
27126489
PMCID:
PMC5146754
DOI:
10.1016/S2352-3018(16)00037-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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