Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 May;64(5):981-9. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14048. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

The Natural History of Changes in Preferences for Life-Sustaining Treatments and Implications for Inpatient Mortality in Younger and Older Hospitalized Adults.

Author information

1
Division of Research and Systems Research Initiative, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.
2
Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
3
Fostering Improvement in End-of-Life Decision Science Program, Leonard David Institute Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
4
Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
5
Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
6
Decision Support, Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Oakland, California.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To compare changes in preferences for life-sustaining treatments (LSTs) and subsequent mortality of younger and older inpatients.

DESIGN:

Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING:

Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC).

PARTICIPANTS:

Individuals hospitalized at 21 KPNC hospitals between 2008 and 2012 (N = 227,525).

MEASUREMENTS:

Participants were divided according to age (<65, 65-84, ≥85). The effect of age on adding new and reversing prior LST limitations was evaluated. Survival to inpatient discharge was compared according to age group after adding new LST limitations.

RESULTS:

At admission, 18,254 (54.2%) of those aged 85 and older, 18,349 (20.8%) of those aged 65 to 84, and 3,258 (3.1%) of those younger than 65 had requested that the use of LST be limited. Of the 187,664 participants who initially did not request limitations on the use of LST, 15,932 (8.5%) had new LST limitations added; of the 39,861 admitted with LST limitations, 3,017 (7.6%) had these reversed. New limitations were more likely to be seen in older participants (aged 65-84, odds ratio (OR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.16-2.39; aged ≥85, OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 6.05-6.84), and reversals of prior limitations were less likely to be seen in older individuals (aged 65-84, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.65-0.83; aged ≥85, OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.41-0.53) than in those younger than 65. Survival rates to inpatient discharge were 71.7% of subjects aged 85 and older who added new limitations, 57.2% of those aged 65 to 84, and 43.4% of those younger than 65 (P < .001).

CONCLUSION:

Changes in preferences for LSTs were common in hospitalized individuals. Age was an important determinant of likelihood of adding new or reversing prior LST limitations. Of subjects who added LST limitations, those who were older were more likely than those who were younger to survive to hospital discharge.

KEYWORDS:

hospitalization; life support care; resuscitation order

PMID:
27119583
PMCID:
PMC4882256
DOI:
10.1111/jgs.14048
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center