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Int J Sports Med. 2016 Sep;37(10):766-78. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-102659. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

Effects of Cold Stimulation on Mitochondrial Activity and VEGF Expression in vitro.

Author information

1
Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
2
Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
3
Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Department of Health Science, Daito Bunka University, Higashi-matsuyama, Saitama, Japan.
4
Master's Program in Health and Sport Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
5
Faculty of Medicine, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
6
Tsukuba i-Laboratory LLP, Laboratory Examination, Tsukuba, Japan.

Abstract

We aimed to clarify the effects of cold stimulation at various temperatures on mitochondrial activity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vitro. Human fibroblast, human mesenchymal stem cell, and rat skeletal muscle myoblast cell lines were used. For each cell type, cells were divided into 4 groups and stimulated in various cold temperatures (0, 4, 17 and 25°C) 3 times for 15 min each by placement on crushed ice or floating on cold water set at each temperature. Control cells were subjected to warm water at 37°C. Factors related to mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers, and VEGF expression were analyzed 24 h after the last cold stimulation. In all cell types, significant increases of factors related to mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers were seen in the 4°C and 17°C-stimulated cells compared with control cells. In rat skeletal muscle cells stimulated at 4°C, VEGF expression significantly increased compared to the control cells. Our data suggest that cold stimulation at certain temperatures promotes mitochondrial activity, biogenesis and VEGF expression.

PMID:
27116343
DOI:
10.1055/s-0042-102659
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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