Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2016 Apr 26;11(4):e0154529. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154529. eCollection 2016.

Multigenerational Effects of Heavy Metals on Feeding, Growth, Initial Reproduction and Antioxidants in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Author information

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P. R. China.
College of Biological, Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314001, P. R. China.


Earlier studies showed that toxicities of excessive metals lasted over generations. Yet, these studies mainly employed one-generation exposure, and the effects of multigenerational challenges need further studies. Presently, Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead and zinc for four consecutive generations (G1 to G4) at environmental concentrations. The feeding, growth, initial reproduction, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined. All data were represented in the percentage of that in control (POC), and POC in the control was normalized to 100%. In G1 and G2, the POC values in feeding, growth and initial reproduction were generally within 10% of the control (100%), indicating non-significant effects. The POC values in SOD and CAT were significantly higher than 100%, showing stimulatory effects. In G3 and G4, the POC values in feeding, growth and initial reproduction were significantly lower than 100%, showing inhibitory effects which were more severe in G4 than in G3. Meanwhile, SOD and CAT continuously showed stimulatory effects, and the stimulatory effects on SOD increased from G1 to G4. The effects with multigenerational challenges were different from those in one-generation exposure. The effects in later generations demonstrated the importance of multigenerational challenges in judging long-term influences of metals.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center