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Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 26;6:25043. doi: 10.1038/srep25043.

Evaluation of tobacco specific nitrosamines exposure by quantification of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in human hair of non-smokers.

Author information

1
Group of integrative pharmacology and systems neuroscience, Programme of Neurosciences, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute). Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
2
Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
3
Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d'Oncologia-ICO. Av. Granvia de L'Hospitalet 199-203, 08908 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona), Spain.
4
Cancer Control and Prevention Group, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge-IDIBELL. Av Granvia de L'Hospitalet 199-203, 08908 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona), Spain.
5
Biostatistic Unit, Department of Basic Science, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. Carrer Josep Trueta s/n. 08915 Sant Cugat del Valles (Barcelona), Spain.
6
Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona. Carretera de la Feixa llarga s/n. 08908 L'Hospitalet del Llobregat (Barcelona), Spain.

Abstract

Chronic exposure to specific carcinogens present in secondhand smoke has been associated with different types of cancers. Hair is an ideal matrix to develop a proper biomarker as it absorbs substances in circulation and allows measuring their average concentration over long periods of time. A method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of nicotine, cotinine, NNN, NNK and NNAL in 20 mg human hair samples. Concentrations were significantly different depending on the declared exposure. This study shows for the first time that NNK is present in hair samples from non-smokers in concentrations much higher than any other tobacco specific nitrosamine. NNN could also be detected in samples from the most exposed non-smokers while, as previously reported, NNAL was undetectable. NNK correlates well with nicotine and cotinine (rsp = 0.774 and rsp = 0.792 respectively, p < 0.001 in both cases). However, NNN concentrations did not correlate with any of the other analytes. Ratios between NNK and nicotine show variability with different concentrations of NNK present in samples with similar nicotine values. NNK has proven to be the best marker of tobacco specific nitrosamines in hair. Monitoring NNK may provide a good estimation of cancer risk associated with exposure to secondhand smoke.

PMID:
27112239
PMCID:
PMC4844947
DOI:
10.1038/srep25043
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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