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Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016 Aug;51(8):1137-48. doi: 10.1007/s00127-016-1208-5. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

The epidemiology of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biometry, Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Ln., M.S. 9304, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. goldster@mail.nih.gov.
2
Health Behavior Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 7B13C, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. goldster@mail.nih.gov.
3
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biometry, Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Ln., M.S. 9304, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
4
Translational Blood Science and Resources Branch, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Dr., Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To present current, nationally representative US findings on the past-year and lifetime prevalences, sociodemographic correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, associated disability, and treatment of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

METHODS:

Face-to-face interviews with 36,309 adults in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. PTSD, alcohol and drug use disorders, and selected mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5.

RESULTS:

Past-year and lifetime prevalences were 4.7 and 6.1 %, higher for female, white, Native American, younger, and previously married respondents, those with <high school education and lower incomes, and rural residents. PTSD was significantly associated with a broad range of substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders, and past-month disability. Among respondents with lifetime PTSD, 59.4 % sought treatment; an average of 4.5 years elapsed from disorder onset to first treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

DSM-5 PTSD is prevalent, highly comorbid, disabling, and associated with delayed help seeking. Additional research is needed to elucidate relationships identified herein, estimate PTSD-related costs, investigate hypotheses regarding etiology, course, and treatment, and support decisions about resource allocation to service delivery and research. Initiatives are needed to destigmatize PTSD, educate the public about its treatment, and encourage affected individuals to seek help.

KEYWORDS:

Comorbidity; Epidemiology; Posttraumatic stress disorder

PMID:
27106853
PMCID:
PMC4980174
DOI:
10.1007/s00127-016-1208-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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