Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2016 Aug;17(4):303-11. doi: 10.1007/s10162-016-0566-8. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

The Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMPs) Recorded Along the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles During Head Rotation and Flexion in Normal Human Subjects.

Author information

1
Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, USA.
2
Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230027, China.
3
Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, No.1 Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.
4
Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, USA. hozhu@umc.edu.
5
Departments of Neurology, Neurobiology and Anatomical Science, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA. hozhu@umc.edu.
6
Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, USA. wzhou@umc.edu.
7
Departments of Neurology, Neurobiology and Anatomical Science, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA. wzhou@umc.edu.
8
Primate Research Center of Jin Gang International, Haikou, Hainan, China. wzhou@umc.edu.

Abstract

Tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) are widely used to assess the vestibular function. Since the cVEMP response is mediated by the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) pathways, it is important to understand how the cVEMPs are determined by factors related to either the sensory components (vestibular end organs) or the motor components (SCM) of the VCR pathways. Compared to the numerous studies that have investigated effects of sound parameters on the cVEMPs, there are few studies that have examined effects of SCM-related factors on the cVEMPs. The goal of the present study is to fill this knowledge gap by testing three SCM-related hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that contrary to the current view, the cVEMP response is only present in the SCM ipsilateral to the stimulated ear. The second hypothesis is that the cVEMP response is not only dependent on tonic level of the SCM, but also on how the tonic level is achieved, i.e., by head rotation or head flexion. The third hypothesis is that the SCM is compartmented and the polarity of the cVEMP response is dependent on the recording site. Seven surface electrodes were positioned along the left SCMs in 12 healthy adult subjects, and tone bursts were delivered to the ipsilateral or contralateral ear (8 ms plateau, 1 ms rise/fall, 130 dB SPL, 50-4000 Hz) while subjects activated their SCMs by head rotation (HR condition) or chin downward head flexion (CD condition). The first hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the contralateral cVEMPs were minimal at all recording sites for all the tested tones during both HR and CD conditions. The second hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the ipsilateral cVEMPs were larger in HR condition than in CD condition at recording sites above and below the SCM midpoint. Finally, the third hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the cVEMPs exhibit reversed polarities at the sites near the mastoid and the sternal head. These results improve understanding of the cVEMP generation and suggest that the SCM-related factors should be taken into consideration when developing standardized clinical cVEMP testing protocols.

KEYWORDS:

VCR; VEMP; VOR; otolith; semicircular canals; vestibular testing

PMID:
27105980
PMCID:
PMC4940286
DOI:
10.1007/s10162-016-0566-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center