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Br J Dermatol. 2016 Nov;175(5):920-929. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14697. Epub 2016 Aug 28.

Association between atopic dermatitis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in U.S. children and adults.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Suite 1600, 676 N. St. Clair St, Chicago, IL, 60611, U.S.A.
2
Department of Allergy & Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Suite 1600, 676 N. St. Clair St, Chicago, IL, 60611, U.S.A.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Suite 1600, 676 N. St. Clair St, Chicago, IL, 60611, U.S.A.
4
Northwestern Medicine Multidisciplinary Eczema Center, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.
5
Department of Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Suite 1600, 676 N. St. Clair St, Chicago, IL, 60611, U.S.A. jonathanisilverberg@gmail.com.
6
Northwestern Medicine Multidisciplinary Eczema Center, Chicago, IL, U.S.A. jonathanisilverberg@gmail.com.
7
Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Suite 1600, 676 N. St. Clair St, Chicago, IL, 60611, U.S.A. jonathanisilverberg@gmail.com.
8
Department of Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Suite 1600, 676 N. St. Clair St, Chicago, IL, 60611, U.S.A. jonathanisilverberg@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with chronic itch, allergic disease and sleep disturbance, all of which might increase the risk of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADD/ADHD). Previous analyses have found a consistent association between AD and ADD/ADHD, although the underlying factors contributing to such an association remain underexplored. Additionally, the relationship has been underexplored in adults.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine if childhood and adult AD and AD severity are associated with ADD/ADHD and to delineate the factors contributing to such an association.

METHODS:

We analysed data on 354 416 children aged 2-17 years and 34 613 adults age 18+ years from 19 U.S. population-based surveys, including the National Health Interview Survey 1997-2013 and the National Survey of Children's Health 2003/4 and 2007/8.

RESULTS:

In multivariate models adjusting for age, sex, sociodemographics, allergic disease and healthcare utilization, AD was associated with ADD/ADHD in both children [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1·14 (1·03-1·26)] and adults [1·61 (1·25-2·06)]. Children with both severe AD and only 0-3 nights of adequate sleep per week had much higher odds of ADD/ADHD [16·83 (7·02-40·33)] than those with 0-3 nights of adequate sleep per week [1·83 (1·47-2·26)] or mild-moderate AD alone [1·56 (1·22-1·99)]. AD was most strongly associated with severe ADHD. AD unaccompanied by other allergic disease was also associated with increased risk of ADD/ADHD in children. Among children with AD, history of anaemia, headaches and obesity were associated with even higher odds of ADD/ADHD. Asthma, insomnia and headaches increased the odds of ADHD in adults with AD, although underweight body mass index was protective.

CONCLUSIONS:

Atopic dermatitis is associated with increased odds of ADD/ADHD in adults and children. Several factors increase the risk of ADHD in adults and children with AD.

PMID:
27105659
PMCID:
PMC5216180
DOI:
10.1111/bjd.14697
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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