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Vaccine. 2016 Jun 3;34(26):2962-2966. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.110. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Staphylococcus aureus.

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Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, USA.
Initiative for Vaccine Research, World Health Organization, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.


Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile gram positive bacterium that is resident as an asymptomatic colonizer on the skin and in the nasopharynx of approximately 30% of individuals. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk for acquiring S. aureus infections, which can cause a range of clinical symptoms that are commonly associated with skin and soft-tissue infections. The emergence of S. aureus strains that are highly resistant to antimicrobials has recently become a major public health concern. In low-income countries the incidence of S. aureus disease is highest in neonates and children up to one year of age and mortality rates are estimated to be up to 50%. In the United States, S. aureus infection accounts for approximately 300,000 hospitalizations per year. A vaccine against multi-drug resistant S. aureus, therefore, is urgently needed. Two vaccine candidates have previously been evaluated in late-stage clinical trials but have not demonstrated efficacy. At present, one vaccine candidate and two monoclonal antibody are undergoing clinical evaluation in target groups at high risk for S. aureus infection. This review provides an overview of current vaccine development efforts and presents the major technical and regulatory challenges to developing a licensed S. aureus vaccine.


Antibody; Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); Multi-antigen approaches; Skin and soft tissue infections; Vaccine

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