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Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Sep 15;22(18):4634-42. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2937. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Targeted Dual-Modality Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Ex Vivo Kidney Perfusion Study.

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Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Department of Urology, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Department of Urology, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.



Antibodies labeled with both a near-infrared fluorescent dye and a radionuclide can be used for tumor-targeted intraoperative dual-modality imaging. Girentuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), an antigen expressed in 95% of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This study aimed to assess the feasibility of targeted dual-modality imaging with (111)In-girentuximab-IRDye800CW using ex vivo perfusion of human tumorous kidneys.


Seven radical nephrectomy specimens from patients with ccRCC were perfused during 11 to 15 hours with dual-labeled girentuximab and subsequently rinsed during 2.5 to 4 hours with Ringer's Lactate solution. Then, dual-modality imaging was performed on a 5- to 10-mm-thick lamella of the kidney. Fluorescence imaging was performed with a clinical fluorescence camera set-up as applied during image-guided surgery. The distribution of Indium-111 in the slice of tumor tissue was visualized by autoradiography. In two perfusions, an additional dual-labeled control antibody was added to demonstrate specific accumulation of dual-labeled girentuximab in CAIX-expressing tumor tissue.


Both radionuclide and fluorescence imaging clearly visualized uptake in tumor tissue and tumor-to-normal tissue borders, as confirmed (immuno)histochemically and by gamma counting. Maximum uptake of girentuximab in tumor tissue was 0.33% of the injected dose per gram (mean, 0.12 %ID/g; range, 0.01-0.33 %ID/g), whereas maximum uptake in the normal kidney tissue was 0.04 %ID/g (mean, 0.02 %ID/g; range, 0.00-0.04 %ID/g).


Dual-labeled girentuximab accumulated specifically in ccRCC tissue, indicating the feasibility of dual-modality imaging to detect ccRCC. A clinical study to evaluate intraoperative dual-modality imaging in patients with ccRCC has been initiated. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4634-42. ©2016 AACR.

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