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Euro Surveill. 2016;21(14). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.14.30189.

Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 - a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment.

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Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.


In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1-52.4) and against influenza B 4.1% (95% CI: -22.0 to 24.7). The majority of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in 2015/16 belonged to the new genetic subgroup subclade 6B.1.


antigenic characterization; genetic drift; phylogeny; seasonal influenza; vaccine effectiveness

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