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J Mater Chem B. 2015 Nov 7;3(45):8757-8770. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Nanocoating for biomolecule delivery using layer-by-layer self-assembly.

Author information

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 300 Pasteur Dr., Edwards R105, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
2
Program of Human Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
3
Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
4
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 300 Pasteur Dr., Edwards R105, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1990s, layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of films has been widely used in the fields of nanoelectronics, optics, sensors, surface coatings, and controlled drug delivery. The growth of this industry is propelled by the ease of film manufacture, low cost, mild assembly conditions, precise control of coating thickness, and versatility of coating materials. Despite the wealth of research on LbL for biomolecule delivery, clinical translation has been limited and slow. This review provides an overview of methods and mechanisms of loading biomolecules within LbL films and achieving controlled release. In particular, this review highlights recent advances in the development of LbL coatings for the delivery of different types of biomolecules including proteins, polypeptides, DNA, particles and viruses. To address the need for co-delivery of multiple types of biomolecules at different timing, we also review recent advances in incorporating compartmentalization into LbL assembly. Existing obstacles to clinical translation of LbL technologies and enabling technologies for future directions are also discussed.

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