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Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2016 Aug;14(8):939-51. doi: 10.1080/14779072.2016.1180976. Epub 2016 May 4.

Challenges and opportunities in treating inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension.

Author information

1
a School of Pharmacy , Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond , VA , USA.
2
b Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Division , Stanford University , Palo Alto , CA , USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Inflammatory cells are present in the lungs from patients with many, if not all, forms of severe pulmonary hypertension.

AREAS COVERED:

Historically the first inflammatory cell identified in the pulmonary vascular lesions was the mast cell. T and B lymphocytes, as well as macrophages, are present in and around the pulmonary arterioles and many patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin 1 and 6; some patients show elevated levels of leukotriene B4. An overlap between collagen-vascular disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and idiopathic PAH exists, yet only a few studies have been designed that evaluate the effect of anti-inflammatory treatments. Here we review the pertinent data that connect PAH and inflammation/autoimmune dysregulation and evaluate experimental models of severe PAH with an emphasis on the Sugen/athymic rat model of severe PAH. Expert commentary: We postulate that there are several inflammatory phenotypes and predict that there will be several anti-inflammatory treatment strategies for severe PAH.

KEYWORDS:

Severe pulmonary hypertension; anti-CD20 antibodies; autoimmunity; cytokines; inflammation; leukotrienes; metabolic syndrome; wound healing

PMID:
27096622
PMCID:
PMC5085832
DOI:
10.1080/14779072.2016.1180976
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of interest This paper was funded by grants from the National Instituted of Health (grant numbers 5PO1HL014985, R01HLI22887). M Nicolls is the cofounder of Eiccose LLC, a company investigating targeting LTB4 in pulmonary hypertension. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed.

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