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Pathogens. 2016 Apr 16;5(2). pii: E36. doi: 10.3390/pathogens5020036.

Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. M.A.Beerepoot@amc.uva.nl.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. S.E.Geerlings@amc.uva.nl.

Abstract

Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%-40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial.

KEYWORDS:

non-antibiotic strategies; prevention and control; review; urinary tract infections

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