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Environ Res. 2016 Jul;148:273-276. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.04.002. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

UV filters interaction in the chlorinated swimming pool, a new challenge for urbanization, a need for community scale investigations.

Author information

1
Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, United States. Electronic address: hamidreza.sharifan@ttu.edu.
2
Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, United States. Electronic address: david.klein@ttu.edu.
3
Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, United States. Electronic address: audra.n.morse@ttu.edu.

Abstract

Sunscreen products and some personal care products contain the Ultraviolet (UV) chemical filters, which are entering the surface water. Public concerns about secondary effects of these compounds are growing because of the contamination of the aquatic environment that may reach to potentially toxic concentration levels. This article highlights the reaction of certain UV filters with hypochlorite disinfectant in the presence of sunlight. Due to urbanization and industrialization, use of outdoor plastic swimming pools is increasing. The relatively smaller volume of these pools compared to larger pools may increase the concentration of the UV filters in the pool and their potential interactions with materials of human origin (urine, sweat, cosmetics, skin cells, and hair) to the levels of toxicity concerns for children through the creation of disinfection by products (DBP). Based on our analysis, the minimum concentration levels of 2.85, 1.9, 1.78 and 0.95g/L, respectively, for EHMC, OC, 4-MBC and BP3 UV filters in children pools are predicted. Therefore, this article calls for an urgent investigation of potential toxic effects of the UV filters, the creation of DBPs and their subsequent impacts on human health.

KEYWORDS:

Disinfectants; Human health; Swimming pools; UV filters; Urbanization

PMID:
27088731
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2016.04.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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