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J Med Radiat Sci. 2016 Mar;63(1):59-66. doi: 10.1002/jmrs.154. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Ultrasound of paediatric appendicitis and its secondary sonographic signs: providing a more meaningful finding.

Author information

1
Lady Cilento Children's Hospital Children's Health Queensland South Brisbane Qld Australia; School of Mathematics Science and Engineering Faculty Queensland University of Technology Brisbane Qld Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation Queensland University of Technology Kelvin Grove Qld Australia.
2
Lady Cilento Children's Hospital Children's Health Queensland South Brisbane Qld Australia.
3
School of Mathematics Science and Engineering Faculty Queensland University of Technology Brisbane Qld Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation Queensland University of Technology Kelvin Grove Qld Australia.
4
Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation Queensland University of Technology Kelvin Grove Qld Australia; School of Clinical Sciences Faculty of Health Queensland University of Technology Brisbane Qld Australia.

Abstract

Sonography is an important clinical tool in diagnosing appendicitis in children as it can obviate both exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation from computed tomography scans and the need for unnecessary appendicectomies. This review examines the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in the identification of acute appendicitis, with a particular focus on the the utility of secondary sonographic signs as an adjunct or corollary to traditionally examined criteria. These secondary signs can be important in cases where the appendix cannot be identified with ultrasound and a more meaningful finding may be made by incorporating the presence or absence of secondary sonographic signs. There is evidence that integrating these secondary signs into the final ultrasound diagnosis can improve the utility of ultrasound in cases where appendicitis is expected, though there remains some conjecture about whether they play a more important role in negative or positive prediction in the absence of an identifiable appendix.

KEYWORDS:

Appendicitis; child; paediatrics; ultrasonography

PMID:
27087976
PMCID:
PMC4775827
DOI:
10.1002/jmrs.154
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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