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Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016 Apr;30(2):145-59. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2016.02.007. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Physiology of Intestinal Absorption and Secretion.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Steele Children's Research Center, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724, USA; Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, 1656 E. Mabel St., Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. Electronic address: pkiela@peds.arizona.edu.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Steele Children's Research Center, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. Electronic address: fghishan@peds.arizona.edu.

Abstract

Virtually all nutrients from the diet are absorbed into blood across the highly polarized epithelial cell layer forming the small and large intestinal mucosa. Anatomical, histological, and functional specializations along the gastrointestinal tract are responsible for the effective and regulated nutrient transport via both passive and active mechanisms. In this chapter, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanism of intestinal absorption of key nutrients such as sodium, anions (chloride, sulfate, oxalate), carbohydrates, amino acids and peptides, lipids, lipid- and water-soluble vitamins, as well as the major minerals and micronutrients. This outline, including the molecular identity, specificity, and coordinated activities of key transport proteins and genes involved, serves as the background for the following chapters focused on the pathophysiology of acquired and congenital intestinal malabsorption, as well as clinical tools to test and treat malabsorptive symptoms.

KEYWORDS:

Amino acids; Carbohydrates; Chloride; Epithelial transport; Lipids; Micronutrients; Minerals; Oxalate; Short chain fatty acids; Sodium; Sulfate; vitamins

PMID:
27086882
PMCID:
PMC4956471
DOI:
10.1016/j.bpg.2016.02.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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