Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 15;80(12):916-922. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.02.018. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk for Depression: A Nationwide Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: zheng.chang@ki.se.
2
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
3
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. However, it is unclear whether ADHD medication increases or decreases the risk for depression.

METHODS:

We studied all individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD born between 1960 and 1998 in Sweden (N = 38,752). We obtained data for prescription of ADHD medication, diagnosis of depression and other psychiatric disorders, and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. The association between ADHD medication and depression was estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS:

After adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, ADHD medication was associated with a reduced long-term risk (i.e., 3 years later) for depression (hazard ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.67). The risk was lower for longer duration of ADHD medication. Also, ADHD medication was associated with reduced rates of concurrent depression; within-individual analysis suggested that occurrence of depression was 20% less common during periods when patients received ADHD medication compared with periods when they did not (hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study suggests that ADHD medication does not increase the risk of later depression; rather, medication was associated with a reduced risk for subsequent and concurrent depression.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD medication; Cohort study; Depression; Long-term effect; Short-term effect; Stimulants

PMID:
27086545
PMCID:
PMC4995143
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.02.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center