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J Econ Entomol. 1989 Apr;82(2):347-53.

Improved filter paper test for detecting and quantifying increased esterase activity in organophosphate-resistant mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).


A previously described filter paper test procedure for detecting of esterases involved in organophosphate insecticide resistance in the Culex pipiens L. complex was modified to permit quantification of esterase activity and resistance in single insects. The new procedure, FP/Est test, was used to survey organophosphate resistance in 11 field collections from seven states. Clear discrimination of increased activity was possible by visual inspection and by densitometric analysis. The proportion of insects with susceptible-like esterase activity was strongly correlated with (and often was not significantly different from) the proportion found to be susceptible by bioassay with chlorpyrifos, temephos, fenthion, and malathion, indicating that the FP/Est test is a reliable method for detecting and monitoring of organophosphate resistance. In addition, the 90th percentile of esterase activity in each collection was significantly correlated with the LC90 of each of the four insecticides, suggesting that the FP/Est test also can be used as a rough estimate of resistance levels. Application of the FP/Est test to monitor resistance caused by increased esterase activity in mosquitoes and agricultural pests is discussed.

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