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Accid Anal Prev. 2016 Jul;92:189-201. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.02.021. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Analysis 320 coal mine accidents using structural equation modeling with unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations as exogenous variables.

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School of Management, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 272000, Republic of China.
School of Management, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 272000, Republic of China. Electronic address:
Shandong Lutai Holding Group Co., Ltd., Jining 276826, Republic of China.
Research Center for Food Safety Governance Policy, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao 276826, Republic of China.


Mining has been historically considered as a naturally high-risk industry worldwide. Deaths caused by coal mine accidents are more than the sum of all other accidents in China. Statistics of 320 coal mine accidents in Shandong province show that all accidents contain indicators of "unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations" with a frequency of 1590, accounting for 74.3% of the total frequency of 2140. "Unsafe behaviors of the operator" is another important contributory factor, which mainly includes "operator error" and "venturing into dangerous places." A systems analysis approach was applied by using structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the interactions between the contributory factors of coal mine accidents. The analysis of results leads to three conclusions. (i) "Unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations," affect the "unsafe behaviors of the operator," "unsafe conditions of the equipment," and "unsafe conditions of the environment." (ii) The three influencing factors of coal mine accidents (with the frequency of effect relation in descending order) are "lack of safety education and training," "rules and regulations of safety production responsibility," and "rules and regulations of supervision and inspection." (iii) The three influenced factors (with the frequency in descending order) of coal mine accidents are "venturing into dangerous places," "poor workplace environment," and "operator error."


Accident analysis; Coal mine accidents; Interactions; Structural equation modeling (SEM); Unsafe conditions of the rules and regulations

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