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Circ Res. 2016 Apr 15;118(8):1273-93. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.307547.

Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Clinical Perspectives.

Author information

1
From the Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (M.G., S.L.M.); Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (C.N.B.M.); Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (J.E.B., J.E.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (J.E.B., J.E.M.).
2
From the Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (M.G., S.L.M.); Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (C.N.B.M.); Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (J.E.B., J.E.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (J.E.B., J.E.M.). jmanson@rics.bwh.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death among women in the United States, accounting for ≈1 of every 3 female deaths. Sex-specific data focused on cardiovascular disease have been increasing steadily, yet is not routinely collected nor translated into practice. This comprehensive review focuses on novel and unique aspects of cardiovascular health in women and sex differences as they relate to clinical practice in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. This review also provides current approaches to the evaluation and treatment of acute coronary syndromes that are more prevalent in women, including myocardial infarction associated with nonobstructive coronary arteries, spontaneous coronary artery dissection, and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo Syndrome). Other cardiovascular disease entities with higher prevalence or unique considerations in women, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, peripheral arterial disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysms, are also briefly reviewed. Finally, recommendations for cardiac rehabilitation are addressed.

KEYWORDS:

acute coronary syndromes; cardiovascular disease; primary prevention; risk factors; women

PMID:
27081110
PMCID:
PMC4834856
DOI:
10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.307547
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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