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Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):608-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3229. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Helminth infection promotes colonization resistance via type 2 immunity.

Author information

1
Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
2
Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
3
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
4
Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
5
Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.
6
RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS), Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)-Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 100-0004, Japan.
7
Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA.
8
Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA. Simons Center for Data Analysis, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10011, USA.
9
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my.
10
Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my.
11
Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my.

Abstract

Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment.

Comment in

PMID:
27080105
PMCID:
PMC4905769
DOI:
10.1126/science.aaf3229
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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