Send to

Choose Destination
Mov Disord. 2016 Apr;31(4):436-57. doi: 10.1002/mds.26527.

Nomenclature of genetic movement disorders: Recommendations of the international Parkinson and movement disorder society task force.

Author information

Toronto Western Hospital Morton, Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre, and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Department of Neurology, Royal North Shore Hospital and Kolling Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia.
Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
Lübeck Interdisciplinary Platform for Genome Analytics (LIGA), Institutes of Neurogenetics and Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.
Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
Division of Pediatric Neurology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Department of Neurology & F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies, Department of Molecular Neurosciences, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.
Sorbonne Université, UPMC, Inserm and Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Département de Génétique et Cytogénétique, Paris, France.
Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics I, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg.
Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
Institute of Neurology, School of Medicine University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.


The system of assigning locus symbols to specify chromosomal regions that are associated with a familial disorder has a number of problems when used as a reference list of genetically determined disorders,including (I) erroneously assigned loci, (II) duplicated loci, (III) missing symbols or loci, (IV) unconfirmed loci and genes, (V) a combination of causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and (VI) discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we report on the recommendations of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders and present a system for naming genetically determined movement disorders that addresses these problems. We demonstrate how the system would be applied to currently known genetically determined parkinsonism, dystonia, dominantly inherited ataxia, spastic paraparesis, chorea, paroxysmal movement disorders, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, and primary familial brain calcifications. This system provides a resource for clinicians and researchers that, unlike the previous system, can be considered an accurate and criterion-based list of confirmed genetically determined movement disorders at the time it was last updated.


genetics; movement disorders; nomenclature

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center