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Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 21;8(12):18699-18711. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8627.

Association of coffee consumption with risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

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Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
Bao'an Central Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.
Department of Management, School of Economics and Management, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.
Department of Pathophysiology, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.
National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, Changping, China.
Division of Health System, Policy and Management, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong SAR, China.


A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer and to investigate the shape of the association. Relevant prospective cohort studies were identified by a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases from their inception through August 2015. Either a random-effects model or fixed-effects model was used to compute the pooled risk estimates when appropriate. Linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses were also performed. Nineteen prospective cohort studies involving 2,046,575 participants and 22,629 patients with colorectal cancer were included. The risk of colon cancer was decreased by 7% for every 4 cups per day of coffee (RR=0.93, 95%CI, 0.88-0.99; P=0.199). There was a threshold approximately five cups of coffee per day, and the inverse association for colorectal cancer appeared to be stronger at a higher range of intake. However, a nonlinear association of rectal cancer with coffee consumption was not observed (P for nonlinearity = 0.214). In conclusion, coffee consumption is significantly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer at ≥ 5 cups per day of coffee consumption. The findings support the recommendations of including coffee as a healthy beverage for the prevention of colorectal cancer.


coffee; colorectal cancer; epidemiology; meta-analysis; prospective cohort

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