Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Res. 2016 Jul;148:177-183. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.03.032. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; Center for Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510655, China.
2
College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.
3
Center for Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510655, China. Electronic address: zhengjing@scies.org.
4
Center for Environmental Health Research, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510655, China.
5
Department of Neonatology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
6
State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
7
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.
8
State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, p<0.05), which may be due to the longer exposure time of the distal segments to external sources. The values of log (PFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (p<0.05, r=0.68), indicating that PFRs with a higher log KOA tend to accumulate in hair at a higher rate than PFRs with a lower log KOA. Using combined segments of female hair, significantly higher PFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs.

KEYWORDS:

Gender difference; Human hair; Organophosphate flame retardants; Segmental difference; Serum

PMID:
27078091
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2016.03.032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center