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EBioMedicine. 2016 Jan 28;5:135-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.01.032. eCollection 2016 Mar.

Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection.

Author information

1
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya, C. Sagrada Família 7, 08500 Vic, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain.
2
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain.
3
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya, C. Sagrada Família 7, 08500 Vic, Catalonia, Spain.
4
Department of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge 141, 86, Stockholm, Sweden.
5
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
6
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
7
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain; ISGLOBAL, Carrer Rosselló, 132, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
8
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya, C. Sagrada Família 7, 08500 Vic, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain; HIV Unit & Lluita Contra la SIDA Foundation, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
9
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; HIV Unit & Lluita Contra la SIDA Foundation, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
10
HIV Unit & Lluita Contra la SIDA Foundation, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
11
BCN Checkpoint, Carrer del Comte Borrell, 164, 08015 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
12
Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebrón, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebrón, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
13
IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya, C. Sagrada Família 7, 08500 Vic, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
14
Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya, C. Sagrada Família 7, 08500 Vic, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain; HIV Unit & Lluita Contra la SIDA Foundation, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
15
Digestive Diseases Department, Vall d'Hebrón Institute of Research, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebrón, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebrón, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
16
Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya, C. Sagrada Família 7, 08500 Vic, Catalonia, Spain.
17
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Max-Delbrück-Centre for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Str. 10, 13092 Berlin, Germany; Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit, EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

Abstract

The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction.

KEYWORDS:

16S rDNA; Bacteroides; HIV-1; Microbiome; Microbiota; Prevotella

PMID:
27077120
PMCID:
PMC4816837
DOI:
10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.01.032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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