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Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 14;6:24444. doi: 10.1038/srep24444.

A Fluorescence Approach to Assess the Production of Soluble Microbial Products from Aerobic Granular Sludge Under the Stress of 2,4-Dichlorophenol.

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School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, PR China.
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia.
Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing &Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, PR China.


In this study, a fluorescence approach was used to evaluate the production of soluble microbial products (SMP) in aerobic granular sludge system under the stress of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). A combined use of three-dimension excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM), Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), synchronous fluorescence and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) were explored to respect the SMP formation in the exposure of different doses of 2,4-DCP. Data implied that the presence of 2,4-DCP had an obvious inhibition on biological nitrogen removal. According to EEM-PARAFAC, two fluorescent components were derived and represented to the presence of fulvic-like substances and humic-like substances in Component 1 and protein-like substances in Component 2. It was found from synchronous fluorescence that protein-like peak presented slightly higher intensity than that of fulvic-like peak. 2D-COS further revealed that fluorescence change took place sequentially in the following order: protein-like fraction > fulvic-like fraction. The obtained results could provide a potential application of fluorescence spectra in the released SMP assessment in the exposure of toxic compound during wastewater treatment.

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