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ACS Nano. 2016 Apr 26;10(4):4039-45. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.5b06137. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Large-Area High Aspect Ratio Plasmonic Interference Lithography Utilizing a Single High-k Mode.

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Center of Ultra-precision Optoelectronic Instrumentation, Harbin Institute of Technology , Harbin 150080, China.


Plasmonic lithography, which utilizes subwavelength confinement of surface plasmon polartion (SPP) waves, has the capability of breaking the diffraction limit and delivering high resolution. However, all previously reported results suffer from critical issues, such as shallow pattern depth and pattern nonuniformity even over small exposure areas, which limit the application of the technology. In this work, periodic patterns with high aspect ratios and a half-pitch of about 1/6 of the wavelength were achieved with pattern uniformity in square centimeter areas. This was accomplished by designing a special mask and photoresist (PR) system to select a single high spatial frequency mode and incorporating the PR into a waveguide configuration to ensure uniform light exposure over the entire depth of the photoresist layer. In addition to the experimental progress toward large-scale applications of plasmonic interference lithography, the general criteria of designing such an exposure system is also discussed, which can be used for nanoscale fabrication in this fashion for various applications with different requirements for wavelength, pitch, aspect ratio, and structure.


UV lithography; interference; nanomanufacturing; next-generation lithography; optical waveguide; plasmonics; spatial filtering


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