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Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Oct;124(10):1521-1528. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Recent Fast Food Consumption and Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exposures among the U.S. Population in NHANES, 2003-2010.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are widely used industrial chemicals that may adversely impact human health. Human exposure is ubiquitous and can occur through diet, including consumption of processed or packaged food.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine associations between recent fast food intake and BPA and urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHPm) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNPm) among the U.S.

POPULATION:

METHODS:

We combined data on 8,877 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010). Using 24-hr dietary recall data, we quantified: a) fast food intake [percent of total energy intake (TEI) from fast food]; b) fast food-derived fat intake (percent of TEI from fat in fast food); and c) fast food intake by food group (dairy, eggs, grains, meat, and other). We examined associations between dietary exposures and urinary chemical concentrations using multivariate linear regression.

RESULTS:

We observed evidence of a positive, dose-response relationship between fast food intake and exposure to phthalates (p-trend < 0.0001) but not BPA; participants with high consumption (≥ 34.9% TEI from fast food) had 23.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 36.9%) and 39.0% (95% CI: 21.9%, 58.5%) higher levels of ΣDEHPm and DiNPm, respectively, than nonconsumers. Fast food-derived fat intake was also positively associated with ΣDEHPm and DiNPm (p-trend < 0.0001). After adjusting for other food groups, ΣDEHPm was associated with grain and other intake, and DiNPm was associated with meat and grain intake.

CONCLUSION:

Fast food may be a source of exposure to DEHP and DiNP. These results, if confirmed, could inform individual and regulatory exposure reduction strategies.

CITATION:

Zota AR, Phillips CA, Mitro SD. 2016. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposures among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003-2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1521-1528; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510803.

PMID:
27072648
PMCID:
PMC5047792
DOI:
10.1289/ehp.1510803
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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