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Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2016 May 18;29(3):220-6. doi: 10.3415/VCOT-15-11-0181. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

Influence of chondrodystrophy and brachycephaly on geometry of the humerus in dogs.

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Dr. Marcellin-Little, North Carolina State University, Department of Clinical Sciences (DoCS), NCSU CVM VH #2563, 1052 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, United States, E-mail:



To assess the geometry of canine humeri as seen on radiographs in chondrodystrophic dogs (CD) and brachycephalic dogs (BD) compared to non-chondrodystrophic dogs (NCD).


Mediolateral (ML) and craniocaudal (CC) radiographs of skeletally mature humeri were used (CD [n = 5], BD [n = 9], NCD [n = 48]) to evaluate general dimensions (length, width, canal flare, cortical thickness), curvature (shaft, humeral head, and glenoid), and angulation (humeral head and condyle). Measurements from CD, BD, and NCD were compared.


Mean humeral length was shorter in CD (108 mm) compared to BD (184 mm, p = 0.001) and NCD (183 mm, p <0.001). Craniocaudal cortical thickness at 70% of humeral length and ML cortical thickness at 30%, 50%, and 70% of humeral length were less in CD compared to BD and NCD. Humeral shaft curvature was greater in CD (9.9°) compared to BD (6.7°, p = 0.023). The ratio of glenoid radius of curvature / humeral length was greater for CD (11.1%) compared to NCD (9.7%, p = 0.013). The ratio of humeral width / humeral length was greater for BD (29.4%) compared to NCD (26.2%, p = 0.043). The ratio of glenoid length / humeral length was greater in CD (18.0%) than BD (16.4%, p = 0.048) and NCD (15.6%, p <0.001).


Bone proportions and curvature in CD differ from BD and NCD. Differences are minor and unlikely to have clinical significance.


Dog; anatomy; humerus

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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